We consider algorithms with access to an unknown matrix $M\in\mathbb{F}^{n \times d}$ via matrix-vector products, namely, the algorithm chooses vectors $\mathbf{v}^1, \ldots, \mathbf{v}^q$, and observes $M\mathbf{v}^1,\ldots, M\mathbf{v}^q$. Here the $\mathbf{v}^i$ can be randomized as well as chosen adaptively as a function of $ M\mathbf{v}^1,\ldots,M\mathbf{v}^{i-1}$. Motivated by applications of sketching in distributed computation, linear algebra, and streaming models, as well as connections to areas such as communication complexity and property testing, we initiate the study of the number $q$ of queries needed to solve various fundamental problems. We study problems in three broad categories, including linear algebra, statistics problems, and graph problems. For example, we consider the number of queries required to approximate the rank, trace, maximum eigenvalue, and norms of a matrix $M$; to compute the AND/OR/Parity of each column or row of $M$, to decide whether there are identical columns or rows in $M$ or whether $M$ is symmetric, diagonal, or unitary; or to compute whether a graph defined by $M$ is connected or triangle-free. We also show separations for algorithms that are allowed to obtain matrix-vector products only by querying vectors on the right, versus algorithms that can query vectors on both the left and the right. We also show separations depending on the underlying field the matrix-vector product occurs in. For graph problems, we show separations depending on the form of the matrix (bipartite adjacency versus signed edge-vertex incidence matrix) to represent the graph. Surprisingly, this fundamental model does not appear to have been studied on its own, and we believe a thorough investigation of problems in this model would be beneficial to a number of different application areas.

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