Opportunistic Synthesis in Reactive Games under Information Asymmetry

Abhishek N. Kulkarni, Jie Fu

Reactive synthesis is a class of methods to construct a provably-correct control system, referred to as a robot, with respect to a temporal logic specification in the presence of a dynamic and uncontrollable environment. This is achieved by modeling the interaction between the robot and its environment as a two-player zero-sum game. However, existing reactive synthesis methods assume both players to have complete information, which is not the case in many strategic interactions. In this paper, we use a variant of hypergames to model the interaction between the robot and its environment; which has incomplete information about the specification of the robot. This model allows us to identify a subset of game states from where the robot can leverage the asymmetrical information to achieve a better outcome, which is not possible if both players have symmetrical and complete information. We then introduce a novel method of opportunistic synthesis by defining a Markov Decision Process (MDP) using the hypergame under temporal logic specifications. When the environment plays some stochastic strategy in its perceived sure-winning and sure-losing regions of the game, we show that by following the opportunistic strategy, the robot is ensured to only improve the outcome of the game - measured by satisfaction of sub-specifications - whenever an opportunity becomes available. We demonstrate the correctness and optimality of this method using a robot motion planning example in the presence of an adversary.

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