We study the compressed sensing reconstruction problem for a broad class of random, band-diagonal sensing matrices. This construction is inspired by the idea of spatial coupling in coding theory. As demonstrated heuristically and numerically by Krzakala et al. \cite{KrzakalaEtAl}, message passing algorithms can effectively solve the reconstruction problem for spatially coupled measurements with undersampling rates close to the fraction of non-zero coordinates. We use an approximate message passing (AMP) algorithm and analyze it through the state evolution method. We give a rigorous proof that this approach is successful as soon as the undersampling rate $\delta$ exceeds the (upper) R\'enyi information dimension of the signal, $\uRenyi(p_X)$. More precisely, for a sequence of signals of diverging dimension $n$ whose empirical distribution converges to $p_X$, reconstruction is with high probability successful from $\uRenyi(p_X)\, n+o(n)$ measurements taken according to a band diagonal matrix. For sparse signals, i.e., sequences of dimension $n$ and $k(n)$ non-zero entries, this implies reconstruction from $k(n)+o(n)$ measurements. For `discrete' signals, i.e., signals whose coordinates take a fixed finite set of values, this implies reconstruction from $o(n)$ measurements. The result is robust with respect to noise, does not apply uniquely to random signals, but requires the knowledge of the empirical distribution of the signal $p_X$.

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