The Non-Archimedean Theory of Discrete Systems

Vladimir Anashin

In the paper, we study behavior of discrete dynamical systems (automata) w.r.t. transitivity; that is, speaking loosely, we consider how diverse may be behavior of the system w.r.t. variety of word transformations performed by the system: We call a system completely transitive if, given arbitrary pair $a,b$ of finite words that have equal lengths, the system $\mathfrak A$, while evolution during (discrete) time, at a certain moment transforms $a$ into $b$. To every system $\mathfrak A$, we put into a correspondence a family $\mathcal F_{\mathfrak A}$ of continuous maps of a suitable non-Archimedean metric space and show that the system is completely transitive if and only if the family $\mathcal F_{\mathfrak A}$ is ergodic w.r.t. the Haar measure; then we find easy-to-verify conditions the system must satisfy to be completely transitive. The theory can be applied to analyze behavior of straight-line computer programs (in particular, pseudo-random number generators that are used in cryptography and simulations) since basic CPU instructions (both numerical and logical) can be considered as continuous maps of a (non-Archimedean) metric space $\mathbb Z_2$ of 2-adic integers.

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