Collapse of the Hierarchy of Constant-Depth Exact Quantum Circuits

Yasuhiro Takahashi, Seiichiro Tani

We study the quantum complexity class QNC^0_f of quantum operations implementable exactly by constant-depth polynomial-size quantum circuits with unbounded fan-out gates (called QNC^0_f circuits). Our main result is that the quantum OR operation is in QNC^0_f, which is an affirmative answer to the question of Hoyer and Spalek. In sharp contrast to the strict hierarchy of the classical complexity classes: NC^0 \subsetneq AC^0 \subsetneq TC^0, our result with Hoyer and Spalek's one implies the collapse of the hierarchy of the corresponding quantum ones: QNC^0_f = QAC^0_f = QTC^0_f. Then, we show that there exists a constant-depth subquadratic-size quantum circuit for the quantum threshold operation. This implies the size difference between the QNC^0_f and QTC^0_f circuits for implementing the same quantum operation. Lastly, we show that, if the quantum Fourier transform modulo a prime is in QNC^0_f, there exists a polynomial-time exact classical algorithm for a discrete logarithm problem using a QNC^0_f oracle. This implies that, under a plausible assumption, there exists a classically hard problem that is solvable exactly by a QNC^0_f circuit with gates for the quantum Fourier transform.

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