Some Observations on Optimal Frequency Selection in DVFS-based Energy Consumption Minimization

Nikzad Babaii Rizvandi, Javid Taheri, Albert Y. Zomaya

In recent years, the issue of energy consumption in parallel and distributed computing systems has attracted a great deal of attention. In response to this, many energy-aware scheduling algorithms have been developed primarily using the dynamic voltage-frequency scaling (DVFS) capability which has been incorporated into recent commodity processors. Majority of these algorithms involve two passes: schedule generation and slack reclamation. The former pass involves the redistribution of tasks among DVFS-enabled processors based on a given cost function that includes makespan and energy consumption; and, while the latter pass is typically achieved by executing individual tasks with slacks at a lower processor frequency. In this paper, a new slack reclamation algorithm is proposed by approaching the energy reduction problem from a different angle. Firstly, the problem of task slack reclamation by using combinations of processors' frequencies is formulated. Secondly, several proofs are provided to show that (1) if the working frequency set of processor is assumed to be continues, the optimal energy will be always achieved by using only one frequency, (2) for real processors with a discrete set of working frequencies, the optimal energy is always achieved by using at most two frequencies, and (3) these two frequencies are adjacent/neighbouring when processor energy consumption is a convex function of frequency. Thirdly, a novel algorithm to find the best combination of frequencies to result the optimal energy is presented. The presented algorithm has been evaluated based on results obtained from experiments with three different sets of task graphs: 3000 randomly generated task graphs, and 600 task graphs for two popular applications (Gauss-Jordan and LU decomposition). The results show the superiority of the proposed algorithm in comparison with other techniques.

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