This dissertation is a study on the design and analysis of novel, optimal routing and rate control algorithms in wireless, mobile communication networks. Congestion control and routing algorithms upto now have been designed and optimized for wired or wireless mesh networks. In those networks, optimal algorithms (optimal in the sense that either the throughput is maximized or delay is minimized, or the network operation cost is minimized) can be engineered based on the classic time scale decomposition assumption that the dynamics of the network are either fast enough so that these algorithms essentially see the average or slow enough that any changes can be tracked to allow the algorithms to adapt over time. However, as technological advancements enable integration of ever more mobile nodes into communication networks, any rate control or routing algorithms based, for example, on averaging out the capacity of the wireless mobile link or tracking the instantaneous capacity will perform poorly. The common element in our solution to engineering efficient routing and rate control algorithms for mobile wireless networks is to make the wireless mobile links seem as if they are wired or wireless links to all but few nodes that directly see the mobile links (either the mobiles or nodes that can transmit to or receive from the mobiles) through an appropriate use of queuing structures at these selected nodes. This approach allows us to design end-to-end rate control or routing algorithms for wireless mobile networks so that neither averaging nor instantaneous tracking is necessary.