Universal Meshes: A new paradigm for computing with nonconforming triangulations

Ramsharan Rangarajan, Adrian J. Lew

We describe a method for discretizing planar C2-regular domains immersed in non-conforming triangulations. The method consists in constructing mappings from triangles in a background mesh to curvilinear ones that conform exactly to the immersed domain. Constructing such a map relies on a novel way of parameterizing the immersed boundary over a collection of nearby edges with its closest point projection. By interpolating the mappings to curvilinear triangles at select points, we recover isoparametric mappings for the immersed domain defined over the background mesh. Indeed, interpolating the constructed mappings just at the vertices of the background mesh yields a fast meshing algorithm that involves only perturbing a few vertices near the boundary. For the discretization of a curved domain to be robust, we have to impose restrictions on the background mesh. Conversely, these restrictions define a family of domains that can be discretized with a given background mesh. We then say that the background mesh is a universal mesh for such a family of domains. The notion of universal meshes is particularly useful in free/moving boundary problems because the same background mesh can serve as the universal mesh for the evolving domain for time intervals that are independent of the time step. Hence it facilitates a framework for finite element calculations over evolving domains while using a fixed background mesh. Furthermore, since the evolving geometry can be approximated with any desired order, numerical solutions can be computed with high-order accuracy. We demonstrate these ideas with various numerical examples.

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