The Competition for Shortest Paths on Sparse Graphs

Chi Ho Yeung, David Saad

Optimal paths connecting randomly selected network nodes and fixed routers are studied analytically in the presence of non-linear overlap cost that penalizes congestion. Routing becomes increasingly more difficult as the number of selected nodes increases and exhibits ergodicity breaking in the case of multiple routers. A distributed linearly-scalable routing algorithm is devised. The ground state of such systems reveals non-monotonic complex behaviors in both average path-length and algorithmic convergence, depending on the network topology, and densities of communicating nodes and routers.

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