Dynamic complexity of Reachability: How many changes can we handle?

Samir Datta, Pankaj Kumar, Anish Mukherjee, Anuj Tawari, Nils Vortmeier, Thomas Zeume

In 2015, it was shown that reachability for arbitrary directed graphs can be updated by first-order formulas after inserting or deleting single edges. Later, in 2018, this was extended for changes of size $\frac{\log n}{\log \log n}$, where $n$ is the size of the graph. Changes of polylogarithmic size can be handled when also majority quantifiers may be used. In this paper we extend these results by showing that, for changes of polylogarithmic size, first-order update formulas suffice for maintaining (1) undirected reachability, and (2) directed reachability under insertions. For classes of directed graphs for which efficient parallel algorithms can compute non-zero circulation weights, reachability can be maintained with update formulas that may use "modulo 2" quantifiers under changes of polylogarithmic size. Examples for these classes include the class of planar graphs and graphs with bounded treewidth. The latter is shown here. As the logics we consider cannot maintain reachability under changes of larger sizes, our results are optimal with respect to the size of the changes.

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