Scalable Attack on Graph Data by Injecting Vicious Nodes

Jihong Wang, Minnan Luo, Fnu Suya, Jundong Li, Zijiang Yang, Qinghua Zheng

Recent studies have shown that graph convolution networks (GCNs) are vulnerable to carefully designed attacks, which aim to cause misclassification of a specific node on the graph with unnoticeable perturbations. However, a vast majority of existing works cannot handle large-scale graphs because of their high time complexity. Additionally, existing works mainly focus on manipulating existing nodes on the graph, while in practice, attackers usually do not have the privilege to modify information of existing nodes. In this paper, we develop a more scalable framework named Approximate Fast Gradient Sign Method (AFGSM) which considers a more practical attack scenario where adversaries can only inject new vicious nodes to the graph while having no control over the original graph. Methodologically, we provide an approximation strategy to linearize the model we attack and then derive an approximate closed-from solution with a lower time cost. To have a fair comparison with existing attack methods that manipulate the original graph, we adapt them to the new attack scenario by injecting vicious nodes. Empirical experimental results show that our proposed attack method can significantly reduce the classification accuracy of GCNs and is much faster than existing methods without jeopardizing the attack performance.

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