A weakly non-hydrostatic shallow model for dry granular flows

José Garres-Díaz, Enrique D. Fernández-Nieto, Anne Mangeney, Tomás Morales de Luna

A non-hydrostatic depth-averaged model for dry granular flows is proposed, taking into account vertical acceleration. A variable friction coefficient based on the $\mu(I)$ rheology is considered. The model is obtained from an asymptotic analysis in a local reference system, where the non-hydrostatic contribution is supposed to be small compared to the hydrostatic one. The non-hydrostatic counterpart of the pressure may be written as the sum of two terms: one corresponding to the stress tensor and the other to the vertical acceleration. The model introduced here is weakly non-hydrostatic, in the sense that the non-hydrostatic contribution related to the stress tensor is not taken into account due to its complex implementation. A simple and efficient numerical scheme is proposed. It consists of a three-step splitting procedure, and it is based on a hydrostatic reconstruction. Two key points are: (i) the friction force has to be taken into account before solving the non-hydrostatic pressure. Otherwise, the incompressibility condition is not ensured; (ii) both the hydrostatic and the non-hydrostatic pressure are taken into account when dealing with the friction force. The model and numerical scheme are then validated based on several numerical tests, including laboratory experiments of granular collapse. The influence of non-hydrostatic terms and of the choice of the coordinate system (Cartesian or local) is analyzed. We show that non-hydrostatic models are less sensitive to the choice of the coordinate system. In general, the non-hydrostatic model introduced here much better reproduces granular collapse experiments compared to hydrostatic models. An important result is that the simulated mass profiles up to the deposit and the front velocity are greatly improved. As expected, the influence of the non-hydrostatic pressure is shown to be larger for small values of the slope.

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