A Low-Power Dual-Factor Authentication Unit for Secure Implantable Devices

Saurav Maji, Utsav Banerjee, Samuel H Fuller, Mohamed R Abdelhamid, Phillip M Nadeau, Rabia Tugce Yazicigil, Anantha P Chandrakasan

This paper presents a dual-factor authentication protocol and its low-power implementation for security of implantable medical devices (IMDs). The protocol incorporates traditional cryptographic first-factor authentication using Datagram Transport Layer Security - Pre-Shared Key (DTLS-PSK) followed by the user's touch-based voluntary second-factor authentication for enhanced security. With a low-power compact always-on wake-up timer and touch-based wake-up circuitry, our test chip consumes only 735 pW idle state power at 20.15 Hz and 2.5 V. The hardware accelerated dual-factor authentication unit consumes 8 $\mu$W at 660 kHz and 0.87 V. Our test chip was coupled with commercial Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver, DC-DC converter, touch sensor and coin cell battery to demonstrate standalone implantable operation and also tested using in-vitro measurement setup.

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