Pedestrian Path, Pose and Intention Prediction through Gaussian Process Dynamical Models and Pedestrian Activity Recognition

Raul Quintero, Ignacio Parra, David Fernandez Llorca, Miguel Angel Sotelo

According to several reports published by worldwide organisations, thousands of pedestrians die in road accidents every year. Due to this fact, vehicular technologies have been evolving with the intent of reducing these fatalities. This evolution has not finished yet since, for instance, the predictions of pedestrian paths could improve the current Automatic Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS). For this reason, this paper proposes a method to predict future pedestrian paths, poses and intentions up to 1s in advance. This method is based on Balanced Gaussian Process Dynamical Models (B-GPDMs), which reduce the 3D time-related information extracted from keypoints or joints placed along pedestrian bodies into low-dimensional spaces. The B-GPDM is also capable of inferring future latent positions and reconstruct their associated observations. However, learning a generic model for all kind of pedestrian activities normally provides less ccurate predictions. For this reason, the proposed method obtains multiple models of four types of activity, i.e. walking, stopping, starting and standing, and selects the most similar model to estimate future pedestrian states. This method detects starting activities 125ms after the gait initiation with an accuracy of 80% and recognises stopping intentions 58.33ms before the event with an accuracy of 70%. Concerning the path prediction, the mean error for stopping activities at a Time-To-Event (TTE) of 1s is 238.01mm and, for starting actions, the mean error at a TTE of 0s is 331.93mm.

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