There has been vigorous debate on how different countries responded to the COVID-19. To secure public safety, Korea has actively used personal information at the risk of personal privacy whereas France encourages voluntary cooperation at the risk of public safety. In this article, we examine the pros and cons of these two different approaches in epidemiological investigations. In addition, we present technological options of de-identification of personal information in the course of managing this pandemic under control. We discuss lessons for future research and policy implications.