Generating Randomness from a Computable, Non-random Sequence of Qubits

Tejas Bhojraj

Nies and Scholz introduced the notion of a state to describe an infinite sequence of qubits and defined quantum-Martin-Lof randomness for states, analogously to the well known concept of Martin-L\"of randomness for elements of Cantor space (the space of infinite sequences of bits). We formalize how 'measurement' of a state in a basis induces a probability measure on Cantor space. A state is 'measurement random' (mR) if the measure induced by it, under any computable basis, assigns probability one to the set of Martin-L\"of randoms. Equivalently, a state is mR if and only if measuring it in any computable basis yields a Martin-L\"of random with probability one. While quantum-Martin-L\"of random states are mR, the converse fails: there is a mR state, x which is not quantum-Martin-L\"of random. In fact, something stronger is true. While x is computable and can be easily constructed, measuring it in any computable basis yields an arithmetically random sequence with probability one. I.e., classical arithmetic randomness can be generated from a computable, non-quantum random sequence of qubits.

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