Generalization Error of Generalized Linear Models in High Dimensions

Melikasadat Emami, Mojtaba Sahraee-Ardakan, Parthe Pandit, Sundeep Rangan, Alyson K. Fletcher

At the heart of machine learning lies the question of generalizability of learned rules over previously unseen data. While over-parameterized models based on neural networks are now ubiquitous in machine learning applications, our understanding of their generalization capabilities is incomplete. This task is made harder by the non-convexity of the underlying learning problems. We provide a general framework to characterize the asymptotic generalization error for single-layer neural networks (i.e., generalized linear models) with arbitrary non-linearities, making it applicable to regression as well as classification problems. This framework enables analyzing the effect of (i) over-parameterization and non-linearity during modeling; and (ii) choices of loss function, initialization, and regularizer during learning. Our model also captures mismatch between training and test distributions. As examples, we analyze a few special cases, namely linear regression and logistic regression. We are also able to rigorously and analytically explain the \emph{double descent} phenomenon in generalized linear models.

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