Correcting the Autocorrect: Context-Aware Typographical Error Correction via Training Data Augmentation

Kshitij Shah, Gerard de Melo

In this paper, we explore the artificial generation of typographical errors based on real-world statistics. We first draw on a small set of annotated data to compute spelling error statistics. These are then invoked to introduce errors into substantially larger corpora. The generation methodology allows us to generate particularly challenging errors that require context-aware error detection. We use it to create a set of English language error detection and correction datasets. Finally, we examine the effectiveness of machine learning models for detecting and correcting errors based on this data. The datasets are available at

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