Implicit Linear Algebra and Basic Circuit Theory

H. Narayanan, Hariharan Narayanan

In this paper we derive some basic results of circuit theory using `Implicit Linear Algebra' (ILA). This approach has the advantage of simplicity and generality. Implicit linear algebra is outlined in [1]. We denote the space of all vectors on $S$ by $\mathcal{F}_S$ and the space containing only the zero vector on $S$ by $\mathbf{0}_S.$ The dual $\mathcal{V}_S^{\perp}$ of a vector space $\mathcal{V}_S$ is the collection of all vectors whose dot product with vectors in $\mathcal{V}_S$ is zero. The basic operation of ILA is a linking operation ('matched composition`) between vector spaces $\mathcal{V}_{SP},\mathcal{V}_{PQ}$ (regarded as collections of row vectors on column sets $S\cup P, P\cup Q,$ respectively with $S,P,Q$ disjoint) defined by $\mathcal{V}_{SP}\leftrightarrow \mathcal{V}_{PQ}\equiv \{(f_S,h_Q):((f_S,g_P)\in \mathcal{V}_{SP}, (g_P,h_Q) \in \mathcal{V}_{PQ}\},$ and another ('skewed composition`) defined by $\mathcal{V}_{SP}\rightleftharpoons \mathcal{V}_{PQ}\equiv \{(f_S,h_Q):((f_S,g_P)\in \mathcal{V}_{SP}, (-g_P,h_Q) \in \mathcal{V}_{PQ}\}.$ The basic results of ILA are the Implicit Inversion Theorem (which states that $\mathcal{V}_{SP}\leftrightarrow(\mathcal{V}_{SP}\leftrightarrow \mathcal{V}_S)= \mathcal{V}_S,$ iff $\mathcal{V}_{SP}\leftrightarrow \mathbf{0}_P\subseteq \mathcal{V}_S\subseteq \mathcal{V}_{SP}\leftrightarrow\mathcal{F}_S$) and Implicit Duality Theorem (which states that $(\mathcal{V}_{SP}\leftrightarrow \mathcal{V}_{PQ})^{\perp}= (\mathcal{V}_{SP}^{\perp}\rightleftharpoons \mathcal{V}_{PQ}^{\perp}$). We show that the operations and results of ILA are useful in understanding basic circuit theory. We illustrate this by using ILA to present a generalization of Thevenin-Norton theorem where we compute multiport behaviour using adjoint multiport termination through a gyrator and a very general version of maximum power transfer theorem, which states that the port conditions that appear, during adjoint multiport termination through an ideal transformer, correspond to maximum power transfer.

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