Monte Carlo modeling photon-tissue interaction using on-demand cloud infrastructure

Ethan P. M. LaRochelle, Pedro Arce, Brian W. Pogue

Purpose: This work advances a Monte Carlo (MC) method to combine ionizing radiation physics with optical physics, in a manner which was implicitly designed for deployment with the most widely accessible parallelization and portability possible. Methods: The current work updates a previously developed optical propagation plugin for GEANT4 architecture for medically oriented simulations (GAMOS). Both virtual-machine (VM) and container based instances were validated using previously published scripts, and improvements in execution time using parallel simulations are demonstrated. A method to programmatically deploy multiple containers to achieve parallel execution using an on-demand cloud-based infrastructure is presented. Results: A container-based GAMOS deployment is demonstrated using a multi-layer tissue model and both optical and X-ray source inputs. As an example, the model was split into 154 simulations which were run simultaneously on 64 separate containers across 4 servers. Conclusions: The container-based model provides the ability to execute parallel simulations of applications which are not inherently thread-safe or GPU-optimized. In the current demonstration, this reduced the time by at most 97% compared to sequential execution. The code and examples are available through an interactive online interface through links at: https://sites.dartmouth.edu/optmed/research-projects/monte-carlo-software/

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