Enriching ImageNet with Human Similarity Judgments and Psychological Embeddings

Brett D. Roads, Bradley C. Love

Advances in object recognition flourished in part because of the availability of high-quality datasets and associated benchmarks. However, these benchmarks---such as ILSVRC---are relatively task-specific, focusing predominately on predicting class labels. We introduce a publicly-available dataset that embodies the task-general capabilities of human perception and reasoning. The Human Similarity Judgments extension to ImageNet (ImageNet-HSJ) is composed of human similarity judgments that supplement the ILSVRC validation set. The new dataset supports a range of task and performance metrics, including the evaluation of unsupervised learning algorithms. We demonstrate two methods of assessment: using the similarity judgments directly and using a psychological embedding trained on the similarity judgments. This embedding space contains an order of magnitude more points (i.e., images) than previous efforts based on human judgments. Scaling to the full 50,000 image set was made possible through a selective sampling process that used variational Bayesian inference and model ensembles to sample aspects of the embedding space that were most uncertain. This methodological innovation not only enables scaling, but should also improve the quality of solutions by focusing sampling where it is needed. To demonstrate the utility of ImageNet-HSJ, we used the similarity ratings and the embedding space to evaluate how well several popular models conform to human similarity judgments. One finding is that more complex models that perform better on task-specific benchmarks do not better conform to human semantic judgments. In addition to the human similarity judgments, pre-trained psychological embeddings and code for inferring variational embeddings are made publicly available. Collectively, ImageNet-HSJ assets support the appraisal of internal representations and the development of more human-like models.

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