A cryptographic protocol (CP) is a distributed algorithm designed to provide a secure communication in an insecure environment. CPs are used, for example, in electronic payments, electronic voting procedures, database access systems, etc. Errors in the CPs can lead to great financial and social damage, therefore it is necessary to use mathematical methods to justify the correctness and safety of the CPs. In this paper, a new mathematical model of a CP is introduced, which allows one to describe both the CPs and their properties. It is shown how, on the base of this model, it is possible to solve the problems of verification of CPs.