Yunong Shi, Runzhou Tao, Xupeng Li, Ali Javadi-Abhari, Andrew W. Cross, Frederic T. Chong, Ronghui Gu

We present CertiQ, a verification framework for writing and verifying compiler passes of Qiskit, the most widely-used quantum compiler. To our knowledge, CertiQ is the first effort enabling the verification of real-world quantum compiler passes in a mostly-automated manner. Compiler passes written in the CertiQ interface with annotations can be used to generate verification conditions, as well as the executable code that can be integrated into Qiskit. CertiQ introduces the quantum circuit calculus to enable the efficient checking of equivalence of quantum circuits by encoding such a checking procedure into an SMT problem. CertiQ also provides a verified library of widely-used data structures, transformation functions for circuits, and conversion functions for different quantum data representations. This verified library not only enables modular verification but also sheds light on future quantum compiler design. We have re-implemented and verified 26 (out of 30) Qiskit compiler passes in CertiQ, during which three bugs are detected in the Qiskit implementation. Our verified compiler pass implementations passed all of Qiskit's regression tests without showing noticeable performance loss.

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