Nudge Attacks on Point-Cloud DNNs

Yiren Zhao, Ilia Shumailov, Robert Mullins, Ross Anderson

The wide adaption of 3D point-cloud data in safety-critical applications such as autonomous driving makes adversarial samples a real threat. Existing adversarial attacks on point clouds achieve high success rates but modify a large number of points, which is usually difficult to do in real-life scenarios. In this paper, we explore a family of attacks that only perturb a few points of an input point cloud, and name them nudge attacks. We demonstrate that nudge attacks can successfully flip the results of modern point-cloud DNNs. We present two variants, gradient-based and decision-based, showing their effectiveness in white-box and grey-box scenarios. Our extensive experiments show nudge attacks are effective at generating both targeted and untargeted adversarial point clouds, by changing a few points or even a single point from the entire point-cloud input. We find that with a single point we can reliably thwart predictions in 12--80% of cases, whereas 10 points allow us to further increase this to 37--95%. Finally, we discuss the possible defenses against such attacks, and explore their limitations.

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