Explaining Deep Learning Models for Structured Data using Layer-Wise Relevance Propagation

hsan Ullah, Andre Rios, Vaibhav Gala, Susan Mckeever

Trust and credibility in machine learning models is bolstered by the ability of a model to explain itsdecisions. While explainability of deep learning models is a well-known challenge, a further chal-lenge is clarity of the explanation itself, which must be interpreted by downstream users. Layer-wiseRelevance Propagation (LRP), an established explainability technique developed for deep models incomputer vision, provides intuitive human-readable heat maps of input images. We present the novelapplication of LRP for the first time with structured datasets using a deep neural network (1D-CNN),for Credit Card Fraud detection and Telecom Customer Churn prediction datasets. We show how LRPis more effective than traditional explainability concepts of Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Ex-planations (LIME) and Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) for explainability. This effectivenessis both local to a sample level and holistic over the whole testing set. We also discuss the significantcomputational time advantage of LRP (1-2s) over LIME (22s) and SHAP (108s), and thus its poten-tial for real time application scenarios. In addition, our validation of LRP has highlighted features forenhancing model performance, thus opening up a new area of research of using XAI as an approachfor feature subset selection

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