Deep Convolutional Neural Networks: A survey of the foundations, selected improvements, and some current applications

Lars Lien Ankile, Morgan Feet Heggland, Kjartan Krange

Within the world of machine learning there exists a wide range of different methods with respective advantages and applications. This paper seeks to present and discuss one such method, namely Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). CNNs are deep neural networks that use a special linear operation called convolution. This operation represents a key and distinctive element of CNNs, and will therefore be the focus of this method paper. The discussion starts with the theoretical foundations that underlie convolutions and CNNs. Then, the discussion proceeds to discuss some improvements and augmentations that can be made to adapt the method to estimate a wider set of function classes. The paper mainly investigates two ways of improving the method: by using locally connected layers, which can make the network less invariant to translation, and tiled convolution, which allows for the learning of more complex invariances than standard convolution. Furthermore, the use of the Fast Fourier Transform can improve the computational efficiency of convolution. Subsequently, this paper discusses two applications of convolution that have proven to be very effective in practice. First, the YOLO architecture is a state of the art neural network for image object classification, which accurately predicts bounding boxes around objects in images. Second, tumor detection in mammography may be performed using CNNs, accomplishing 7.2% higher specificity than actual doctors with only .3% less sensitivity. Finally, the invention of technology that outperforms humans in different fields also raises certain ethical and regulatory questions that are briefly discussed.

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