Scaling *down* Deep Learning

Sam Greydanus

Though deep learning models have taken on commercial and political relevance, many aspects of their training and operation remain poorly understood. This has sparked interest in "science of deep learning" projects, many of which are run at scale and require enormous amounts of time, money, and electricity. But how much of this research really needs to occur at scale? In this paper, we introduce MNIST-1D: a minimalist, low-memory, and low-compute alternative to classic deep learning benchmarks. The training examples are 20 times smaller than MNIST examples yet they differentiate more clearly between linear, nonlinear, and convolutional models which attain 32, 68, and 94% accuracy respectively (these models obtain 94, 99+, and 99+% on MNIST). Then we present example use cases which include measuring the spatial inductive biases of lottery tickets, observing deep double descent, and metalearning an activation function.

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