ViDi: Descriptive Visual Data Clustering as Radiologist Assistant in COVID-19 Streamline Diagnostic

Sahithya Ravi, Samaneh Khoshrou, Mykola Pechenizkiy

In the light of the COVID-19 pandemic, deep learning methods have been widely investigated in detecting COVID-19 from chest X-rays. However, a more pragmatic approach to applying AI methods to a medical diagnosis is designing a framework that facilitates human-machine interaction and expert decision making. Studies have shown that categorization can play an essential rule in accelerating real-world decision making. Inspired by descriptive document clustering, we propose a domain-independent explanatory clustering framework to group contextually related instances and support radiologists' decision making. While most descriptive clustering approaches employ domain-specific characteristics to form meaningful clusters, we focus on model-level explanation as a more general-purpose element of every learning process to achieve cluster homogeneity. We employ DeepSHAP to generate homogeneous clusters in terms of disease severity and describe the clusters using favorable and unfavorable saliency maps, which visualize the class discriminating regions of an image. These human-interpretable maps complement radiologist knowledge to investigate the whole cluster at once. Besides, as part of this study, we evaluate a model based on VGG-19, which can identify COVID and pneumonia cases with a positive predictive value of 95% and 97%, respectively, comparable to the recent explainable approaches for COVID diagnosis.

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