Recent NLP tasks have benefited a lot from pre-trained language models (LM) since they are able to encode knowledge of various aspects. However, current LM evaluations focus on downstream performance, hence lack to comprehensively inspect in which aspect and to what extent have they encoded knowledge. This paper addresses both queries by proposing four tasks on syntactic, semantic, commonsense, and factual knowledge, aggregating to a total of $39,308$ questions covering both linguistic and world knowledge in Chinese. Throughout experiments, our probes and knowledge data prove to be a reliable benchmark for evaluating pre-trained Chinese LMs. Our work is publicly available at https://github.com/ZhiruoWang/ChnEval.