Aging-Aware Request Scheduling for Non-Volatile Main Memory

Shihao Song, Anup Das, Onur Mutlu, Nagarajan Kandasamy

Modern computing systems are embracing non-volatile memory (NVM) to implement high-capacity and low-cost main memory. Elevated operating voltages of NVM accelerate the aging of CMOS transistors in the peripheral circuitry of each memory bank. Aggressive device scaling increases power density and temperature, which further accelerates aging, challenging the reliable operation of NVM-based main memory. We propose HEBE, an architectural technique to mitigate the circuit aging-related problems of NVM-based main memory. HEBE is built on three contributions. First, we propose a new analytical model that can dynamically track the aging in the peripheral circuitry of each memory bank based on the bank's utilization. Second, we develop an intelligent memory request scheduler that exploits this aging model at run time to de-stress the peripheral circuitry of a memory bank only when its aging exceeds a critical threshold. Third, we introduce an isolation transistor to decouple parts of a peripheral circuit operating at different voltages, allowing the decoupled logic blocks to undergo long-latency de-stress operations independently and off the critical path of memory read and write accesses, improving performance. We evaluate HEBE with workloads from the SPEC CPU2017 Benchmark suite. Our results show that HEBE significantly improves both performance and lifetime of NVM-based main memory.

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