HeM3D: Heterogeneous Manycore Architecture Based on Monolithic 3D Vertical Integration

Aqeeb Iqbal Arka, Biresh Kumar Joardar, Ryan Gary Kim, Dae Hyun Kim, Janardhan Rao Doppa, Partha Pratim Pande

Heterogeneous manycore architectures are the key to efficiently execute compute- and data-intensive applications. Through silicon via (TSV)-based 3D manycore system is a promising solution in this direction as it enables integration of disparate computing cores on a single system. However, the achievable performance of conventional through-silicon-via (TSV)-based 3D systems is ultimately bottlenecked by the horizontal wires (wires in each planar die). Moreover, current TSV 3D architectures suffer from thermal limitations. Hence, TSV-based architectures do not realize the full potential of 3D integration. Monolithic 3D (M3D) integration, a breakthrough technology to achieve - More Moore and More Than Moore - and opens up the possibility of designing cores and associated network routers using multiple layers by utilizing monolithic inter-tier vias (MIVs) and hence, reducing the effective wire length. Compared to TSV-based 3D ICs, M3D offers the true benefits of vertical dimension for system integration: the size of a MIV used in M3D is over 100x smaller than a TSV. In this work, we demonstrate how M3D-enabled vertical core and uncore elements offer significant performance and thermal improvements in manycore heterogeneous architectures compared to its TSV-based counterpart. To overcome the difficult optimization challenges due to the large design space and complex interactions among the heterogeneous components (CPU, GPU, Last Level Cache, etc.) in an M3D-based manycore chip, we leverage novel design-space exploration algorithms to trade-off different objectives. The proposed M3D-enabled heterogeneous architecture, called HeM3D, outperforms its state-of-the-art TSV-equivalent counterpart by up to 18.3% in execution time while being up to 19 degrees Celcius cooler.

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