Low depth algorithms for quantum amplitude estimation

Tudor Giurgica-Tiron, Iordanis Kerenidis, Farrokh Labib, Anupam Prakash, William Zeng

We design and analyze two new low depth algorithms for amplitude estimation (AE) achieving an optimal tradeoff between the quantum speedup and circuit depth. For $\beta \in (0,1]$, our algorithms require $N= O( \frac{1}{ \epsilon^{1+\beta}})$ oracle calls and require the oracle to be called sequentially $D= O( \frac{1}{ \epsilon^{1-\beta}})$ times to perform amplitude estimation within additive error $\epsilon$. These algorithms interpolate between the classical algorithm $(\beta=1)$ and the standard quantum algorithm ($\beta=0$) and achieve a tradeoff $ND= O(1/\epsilon^{2})$. These algorithms bring quantum speedups for Monte Carlo methods closer to realization, as they can provide speedups with shallower circuits. The first algorithm (Power law AE) uses power law schedules in the framework introduced by Suzuki et al \cite{S20}. The algorithm works for $\beta \in (0,1]$ and has provable correctness guarantees when the log-likelihood function satisfies regularity conditions required for the Bernstein Von-Mises theorem. The second algorithm (QoPrime AE) uses the Chinese remainder theorem for combining lower depth estimates to achieve higher accuracy. The algorithm works for discrete $\beta =q/k$ where $k \geq 2$ is the number of distinct coprime moduli used by the algorithm and $1 \leq q \leq k-1$, and has a fully rigorous correctness proof. We analyze both algorithms in the presence of depolarizing noise and provide experimental comparisons with the state of the art amplitude estimation algorithms.

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