Scaling Out-of-Distribution Detection for Real-World Settings

Dan Hendrycks, Steven Basart, Mantas Mazeika, Mohammadreza Mostajabi, Jacob Steinhardt, Dawn Song

Detecting out-of-distribution examples is important for safety-critical machine learning applications such as medical screening and self-driving cars. However, existing research mainly focuses on simple small-scale settings. To set the stage for more realistic out-of-distribution detection, we depart from small-scale settings and explore large-scale multiclass and multi-label settings with high-resolution images and hundreds of classes. To make future work in real-world settings possible, we also create a new benchmark for anomaly segmentation by introducing the Combined Anomalous Object Segmentation benchmark. Our novel benchmark combines two datasets for anomaly segmentation that incorporate both realism and anomaly diversity. Using both real images and those from a simulated driving environment, we ensure the background context and a wide variety of anomalous objects are naturally integrated, unlike before. We conduct extensive experiments in these more realistic settings for out-of-distribution detection and find that a surprisingly simple detector based on the maximum logit outperforms prior methods in all the large-scale multi-class, multi-label, and segmentation tasks we consider, establishing a new baseline for future work. These results, along with our new anomaly segmentation benchmark, open the door to future research in out-of-distribution detection.

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