Characterizations of finite and infinite episturmian words via lexicographic orderings

Amy Glen, Jacques Justin, Giuseppe Pirillo

In this paper, we characterize by lexicographic order all finite Sturmian and episturmian words, i.e., all (finite) factors of such infinite words. Consequently, we obtain a characterization of infinite episturmian words in a "wide sense" (episturmian and episkew infinite words). That is, we characterize the set of all infinite words whose factors are (finite) episturmian. Similarly, we characterize by lexicographic order all balanced infinite words over a 2-letter alphabet; in other words, all Sturmian and skew infinite words, the factors of which are (finite) Sturmian.

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