Entanglement-assisted multiple-access channels: capacity regions and protocol designs

Haowei Shi, Min-Hsiu Hsieh, Saikat Guha, Zheshen Zhang, Quntao Zhuang

We solve the entanglement-assisted (EA) classical capacity region of quantum multiple-access channels with an arbitrary number of senders. As an example, we consider the bosonic thermal-loss multiple-access channel and solve the one-shot capacity region enabled by an entanglement source composed of sender-receiver pairwise two-mode squeezed vacuum states. The EA capacity region is strictly larger than the capacity region without entanglement-assistance, therefore also larger than the Yen-Shapiro rate-region of Gaussian encoding or coherent-state encoding. When the senders have transmitters of equal low brightness, we also numerically find that the two-mode squeezed vacuum source is optimal at a corner rate point. With two-mode squeezed vacuum states as the source and phase modulation as the encoding, we also design practical receiver protocols to realize the entanglement advantages. Four practical receiver designs, based on optical parametric amplifiers, are given and analyzed. In the parameter region of a large noise background, the receivers can enable a simultaneous rate advantage of $82.0\%$ for each sender. Due to teleportation and superdense coding, our results for EA classical communication can be directly extended to EA quantum communication at half of the rate. Our work provides a unique and practical network communication scenario where entanglement can be beneficial.

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