Automated Insulin Delivery for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patients using Gaussian Process-based Model Predictive Control

Lukas Ortmann, Dawei Shi, Eyal Dassau, Francis J. Doyle, Berno J. E. Misgeld, Steffen Leonhardt

The human insulin-glucose metabolism is a time-varying process, which is partly caused by the changing insulin sensitivity of the body. This insulin sensitivity follows a circadian rhythm and its effects should be anticipated by any automated insulin delivery system. This paper presents an extension of our previous work on automated insulin delivery by developing a controller suitable for humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Furthermore, we enhance the controller with a new kernel function for the Gaussian Process and deal with noisy measurements, as well as, the noisy training data for the Gaussian Process, arising therefrom. This enables us to move the proposed control algorithm, a combination of Model Predictive Controller and a Gaussian Process, closer towards clinical application. Simulation results on the University of Virginia/Padova FDA-accepted metabolic simulator are presented for a meal schedule with random carbohydrate sizes and random times of carbohydrate uptake to show the performance of the proposed control scheme.

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