We address the problem of tensor decomposition in application to direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for transmit beamspace (TB) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. A general 4-order tensor model that enables computationally efficient DOA estimation is designed. Whereas other tensor decomposition-based methods treat all factor matrices as arbitrary, the essence of the proposed DOA estimation method is to fully exploit the Vandermonde structure of the factor matrices to take advantage of the shift-invariance between and within different subarrays. Specifically, the received signal of TB MIMO radar is expressed as a 4-order tensor. Depending on the target Doppler shifts, the constructed tensor is reshaped into two distinct 3-order tensors. A computationally efficient tensor decomposition method is proposed to decompose the Vandermonde factor matrices. The generators of the Vandermonde factor matrices are computed to estimate the phase rotations between subarrays, which can be utilized as a look-up table for finding target DOA. It is further shown that our proposed method can be used in a more general scenario where the subarray structures can be arbitrary but identical. The proposed DOA estimation method requires no prior information about the tensor rank and is guaranteed to achieve precise decomposition result. Simulation results illustrate the performance improvement of the proposed DOA estimation method as compared to conventional DOA estimation techniques for TB MIMO Radar.