Matching Representations of Explainable Artificial Intelligence and Eye Gaze for Human-Machine Interaction

Tiffany Hwu, Mia Levy, Steven Skorheim, David Huber

Rapid non-verbal communication of task-based stimuli is a challenge in human-machine teaming, particularly in closed-loop interactions such as driving. To achieve this, we must understand the representations of information for both the human and machine, and determine a basis for bridging these representations. Techniques of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) such as layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) provide visual heatmap explanations for high-dimensional machine learning techniques such as deep neural networks. On the side of human cognition, visual attention is driven by the bottom-up and top-down processing of sensory input related to the current task. Since both XAI and human cognition should focus on task-related stimuli, there may be overlaps between their representations of visual attention, potentially providing a means of nonverbal communication between the human and machine. In this work, we examine the correlations between LRP heatmap explanations of a neural network trained to predict driving behavior and eye gaze heatmaps of human drivers. The analysis is used to determine the feasibility of using such a technique for enhancing driving performance. We find that LRP heatmaps show increasing levels of similarity with eye gaze according to the task specificity of the neural network. We then propose how these findings may assist humans by visually directing attention towards relevant areas. To our knowledge, our work provides the first known analysis of LRP and eye gaze for driving tasks.

Knowledge Graph



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