The performance of neural network models is often limited by the availability of big data sets. To treat this problem, we survey and develop novel synthetic data generation and augmentation techniques for enhancing low/zero-sample learning in satellite imagery. In addition to extending synthetic data generation approaches, we propose a hierarchical detection approach to improve the utility of synthetic training samples. We consider existing techniques for producing synthetic imagery--3D models and neural style transfer--as well as introducing our own adversarially trained reskinning network, the GAN-Reskinner, to blend 3D models. Additionally, we test the value of synthetic data in a two-stage, hierarchical detection/classification model of our own construction. To test the effectiveness of synthetic imagery, we employ it in the training of detection models and our two stage model, and evaluate the resulting models on real satellite images. All modalities of synthetic data are tested extensively on practical, geospatial analysis problems. Our experiments show that synthetic data developed using our approach can often enhance detection performance, particularly when combined with some real training images. When the only source of data is synthetic, our GAN-Reskinner often boosts performance over conventionally rendered 3D models and in all cases the hierarchical model outperforms the baseline end-to-end detection architecture.