Towards Imperceptible Query-limited Adversarial Attacks with Perceptual Feature Fidelity Loss

Pengrui Quan, Ruiming Guo, Mani Srivastava

Recently, there has been a large amount of work towards fooling deep-learning-based classifiers, particularly for images, via adversarial inputs that are visually similar to the benign examples. However, researchers usually use Lp-norm minimization as a proxy for imperceptibility, which oversimplifies the diversity and richness of real-world images and human visual perception. In this work, we propose a novel perceptual metric utilizing the well-established connection between the low-level image feature fidelity and human visual sensitivity, where we call it Perceptual Feature Fidelity Loss. We show that our metric can robustly reflect and describe the imperceptibility of the generated adversarial images validated in various conditions. Moreover, we demonstrate that this metric is highly flexible, which can be conveniently integrated into different existing optimization frameworks to guide the noise distribution for better imperceptibility. The metric is particularly useful in the challenging black-box attack with limited queries, where the imperceptibility is hard to achieve due to the non-trivial perturbation power.

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