Settling the Sharp Reconstruction Thresholds of Random Graph Matching

Yihong Wu, Jiaming Xu, Sophie H. Yu

This paper studies the problem of recovering the hidden vertex correspondence between two edge-correlated random graphs. We focus on the Gaussian model where the two graphs are complete graphs with correlated Gaussian weights and the Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi model where the two graphs are subsampled from a common parent Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi graph $\mathcal{G}(n,p)$. For dense graphs with $p=n^{-o(1)}$, we prove that there exists a sharp threshold, above which one can correctly match all but a vanishing fraction of vertices and below which correctly matching any positive fraction is impossible, a phenomenon known as the "all-or-nothing" phase transition. Even more strikingly, in the Gaussian setting, above the threshold all vertices can be exactly matched with high probability. In contrast, for sparse Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi graphs with $p=n^{-\Theta(1)}$, we show that the all-or-nothing phenomenon no longer holds and we determine the thresholds up to a constant factor. Along the way, we also derive the sharp threshold for exact recovery, sharpening the existing results in Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi graphs. The proof of the negative results builds upon a tight characterization of the mutual information based on the truncated second-moment computation and an "area theorem" that relates the mutual information to the integral of the reconstruction error. The positive results follows from a tight analysis of the maximum likelihood estimator that takes into account the cycle structure of the induced permutation on the edges.

Knowledge Graph



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