System-reliability based multi-ensemble of GAN and one-class joint Gaussian distributions for unsupervised real-time structural health monitoring

Mohammad Hesam Soleimani-Babakamali, Reza Sepasdar, Kourosh Nasrollahzadeh, Rodrigo Sarlo

Unsupervised health monitoring has gained much attention in the last decade as the most practical real-time structural health monitoring (SHM) approach. Among the proposed unsupervised techniques in the literature, there are still obstacles to robust and real-time health monitoring. These barriers include loss of information from dimensionality reduction in feature extraction steps, case-dependency of those steps, lack of a dynamic clustering, and detection results' sensitivity to user-defined parameters. This study introduces an unsupervised real-time SHM method with a mixture of low- and high-dimensional features without a case-dependent extraction scheme. Both features are used to train multi-ensembles of Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) and one-class joint Gaussian distribution models (1-CG). A novelty detection system of limit-state functions based on GAN and 1-CG models' detection scores is constructed. The Resistance of those limit-state functions (detection thresholds) is tuned to user-defined parameters with the GAN-generated data objects by employing the Monte Carlo histogram sampling through a reliability-based analysis. The tuning makes the method robust to user-defined parameters, which is crucial as there is no rule for selecting those parameters in a real-time SHM. The proposed novelty detection framework is applied to two standard SHM datasets to illustrate its generalizability: Yellow Frame (twenty damage classes) and Z24 Bridge (fifteen damage classes). All different damage categories are identified with low sensitivity to the initial choice of user-defined parameters with both introduced dynamic and static baseline approaches with few or no false alarms.

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