On the computational and statistical complexity of over-parameterized matrix sensing

Jiacheng Zhuo, Jeongyeol Kwon, Nhat Ho, Constantine Caramanis

We consider solving the low rank matrix sensing problem with Factorized Gradient Descend (FGD) method when the true rank is unknown and over-specified, which we refer to as over-parameterized matrix sensing. If the ground truth signal $\mathbf{X}^* \in \mathbb{R}^{d*d}$ is of rank $r$, but we try to recover it using $\mathbf{F} \mathbf{F}^\top$ where $\mathbf{F} \in \mathbb{R}^{d*k}$ and $k>r$, the existing statistical analysis falls short, due to a flat local curvature of the loss function around the global maxima. By decomposing the factorized matrix $\mathbf{F}$ into separate column spaces to capture the effect of extra ranks, we show that $\|\mathbf{F}_t \mathbf{F}_t - \mathbf{X}^*\|_{F}^2$ converges to a statistical error of $\tilde{\mathcal{O}} ({k d \sigma^2/n})$ after $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(\frac{\sigma_{r}}{\sigma}\sqrt{\frac{n}{d}})$ number of iterations where $\mathbf{F}_t$ is the output of FGD after $t$ iterations, $\sigma^2$ is the variance of the observation noise, $\sigma_{r}$ is the $r$-th largest eigenvalue of $\mathbf{X}^*$, and $n$ is the number of sample. Our results, therefore, offer a comprehensive picture of the statistical and computational complexity of FGD for the over-parameterized matrix sensing problem.

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