This paper deals with the problem of recognizability of functions l: Sigma* --> M that map words to values in the support set M of a monoid (M,.,1). These functions are called M-languages. M-languages are studied from the aspect of their recognition by deterministic finite automata whose components take values on M (M-DFAs). The characterization of an M-language l is based on providing a right congruence on Sigma* that is defined through l and a factorization on the set of all M-languages, L(Sigma*,M) (in sort L). A factorization on L is a pair of functions (g,f) such that, for each l in L, g(l). f(l)= l, where g(l) in M and f(l) in L. In essence, a factorization is a form of common factor extraction. A general Myhill-Nerode theorem, which is valid for any L(Sigma*, M), is provided. Basically, l is recognized by an M-DFA if and only if there exists a factorization on L, (g,f), such that the right congruence on Sigma* induced by the factorization (g,f) and f(l), has finite index. This paper shows that the existence of M-DFAs guarantees the existence of natural non-trivial factorizations on L without taking account any additional property on the monoid.

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