Given a graph $G$ with $n$ vertices and maximum degree $\Delta$, it is known that $G$ admits a vertex coloring with $\Delta + 1$ colors such that no edge of $G$ is monochromatic. This can be seen constructively by a simple greedy algorithm, which runs in time $O(n\Delta)$. Very recently, a sequence of results (e.g., [Assadi et. al. SODA'19, Bera et. al. ICALP'20, Alon Assadi Approx/Random'20]) show randomized algorithms for $(\epsilon + 1)\Delta$-coloring in the query model making $\tilde{O}(n\sqrt{n})$ queries, improving over the greedy strategy on dense graphs. In addition, a lower bound of $\Omega(n\sqrt n)$ for any $O(\Delta)$-coloring is established on general graphs. In this work, we give a simple algorithm for $(1 + \epsilon)\Delta$-coloring. This algorithm makes $O(\epsilon^{-1/2}n\sqrt{n})$ queries, which matches the best existing algorithms as well as the classical lower bound for sufficiently large $\epsilon$. Additionally, it can be readily adapted to a quantum query algorithm making $\tilde{O}(\epsilon^{-1}n^{4/3})$ queries, bypassing the classical lower bound. Complementary to these algorithmic results, we show a quantum lower bound of $\Omega(n)$ for $O(\Delta)$-coloring.

Thanks. We have received your report. If we find this content to be in
violation of our guidelines,
we will remove it.

Ok