InFillmore: Neural Frame Lexicalization for Narrative Text Infilling

Jiefu Ou, Nathaniel Weir, Anton Belyy, Felix Yu, Benjamin Van Durme

We propose a structured extension to bidirectional-context conditional language generation, or "infilling," inspired by Frame Semantic theory (Fillmore, 1976). Guidance is provided through two approaches: (1) model fine-tuning, conditioning directly on observed symbolic frames, and (2) a novel extension to disjunctive lexically constrained decoding that leverages frame semantic lexical units. Automatic and human evaluations confirm that frame-guided generation allows for explicit manipulation of intended infill semantics, with minimal loss of indistinguishability from the human-generated text. Our methods flexibly apply to a variety of use scenarios, and we provide an interactive web demo available at

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