Eternal-Thing 2.0: Analog-Trojan Resilient Ripple-Less Solar Energy Harvesting System for Sustainable IoT in Smart Cities and Smart Villages

Saswat K. Ram, Sauvagya R. Sahoo, Banee B. Das, Kamalakanta Mahapatra, Saraju P. Mohanty

Recently, harvesting natural energy is gaining more attention than other conventional approaches for sustainable Internet-of-Things (IoT). System on chip (SoC) power requirement for the IoT and generating higher voltages on-chip is a massive challenge for on-chip peripherals and systems. Many sensors are employed in smart cities and smart villages in decision-making, whose power requirement is an issue, and it must be uninterrupted. Previously, we presented Security-by-Design (SbD) principle to bring energy dissipation and cybersecurity together through our "Eternal-Thing". In this paper, an on-chip reliable energy harvesting system (EHS) is designed for IoT end node devices which is called "Eternal-Thing 2.0". The management section monitors the process load and also the recharging of the battery or super-capacitor. An efficient maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is used to avoid quiescent power consumption. The reliability of the proposed EHS is improved by using an aging tolerant ring oscillator. The proposed EHS is intended and simulated in CMOS 90nm technology. The output voltage is within the vary of 3-3.55V with an input of 1-1.5V. The EHS consumes 22 micro Watt of power, that satisfies the ultra-low-power necessities of IoT sensible nodes.

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