Variational quantum policies for reinforcement learning

Sofiene Jerbi, Casper Gyurik, Simon Marshall, Hans J. Briegel, Vedran Dunjko

Variational quantum circuits have recently gained popularity as quantum machine learning models. While considerable effort has been invested to train them in supervised and unsupervised learning settings, relatively little attention has been given to their potential use in reinforcement learning. In this work, we leverage the understanding of quantum policy gradient algorithms in a number of ways. First, we investigate how to construct and train reinforcement learning policies based on variational quantum circuits. We propose several designs for quantum policies, provide their learning algorithms, and test their performance on classical benchmarking environments. Second, we show the existence of task environments with a provable separation in performance between quantum learning agents and any polynomial-time classical learner, conditioned on the widely-believed classical hardness of the discrete logarithm problem. We also consider more natural settings, in which we show an empirical quantum advantage of our quantum policies over standard neural-network policies. Our results constitute a first step towards establishing a practical near-term quantum advantage in a reinforcement learning setting. Additionally, we believe that some of our design choices for variational quantum policies may also be beneficial to other models based on variational quantum circuits, such as quantum classifiers and quantum regression models.

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