Exploring Blockchain for The Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources

Qing Yang, Hao Wang

The fast growth of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as distributed renewables (e.g., rooftop PV panels), energy storage systems, electric vehicles, and controllable appliances, drives the power system toward a decentralized system with bidirectional power flow. The coordination of DERs through an aggregator, such as a utility, system operator, or a third-party coordinator, emerges as a promising paradigm. However, it is not well understood how to enable trust between the aggregator and DERs to integrate DERs efficiently. In this paper, we develop a trustable and distributed coordination system for DERs using blockchain technology. We model various DERs and formulate a cost minimization problem for DERs to optimize their energy trading, scheduling, and demand response. We use the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve the problem in a distributed fashion. To implement the distributed algorithm in a trustable way, we design a smart contract to update multipliers and communicate with DERs in a blockchain network. We validate our design by experiments using real-world data, and the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.

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