We present a residual-based a posteriori error estimator for the hybrid high-order (HHO) method for the Stokes model problem. Both the proposed HHO method and error estimator are valid in two and three dimensions and support arbitrary approximation orders on fairly general meshes. The upper bound and lower bound of the error estimator are proved, in which proof, a key ingredient is a novel stabilizer employed in the discrete scheme. By using the given estimator, adaptive algorithm of HHO method is designed to solve model problem. Finally, the expected theoretical results are numerically demonstrated on a variety of meshes for model problem.